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Copyright on Campus


Under copyright law, reproduction is one of two forms:

  1. The making of copies: by photocopying, videotaping, or any other method of duplicating visually perceptible material.
  2. The making of phonorecords: by duplicating sound recordings, taping off the air or any other method of recapturing sounds.

Music Reproduction

Printed Music: Relatively brief excerpts (that is,only as much as is necessary) may be used without permission of the copyright holder.

May make a single recording of student performances. The recording may be retained for evaluation purposes only.

May make relatively brief excepts of commercial or other recordings of copyrighted music may be used without permission of the copyright holder.

  May not reproduce musical recordings or convert them to another format (e.g., record to tape, tape to cassette, etc.) without written permission.

Duplicating Print Materials for Classroom Use

May make single copies of:

  • a chapter of a book
  • an article from a magazine or newspaper,
  • a short story, short essay, or short poem, or
  • a chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon from a book, magazine, or newspaper.

May make multiple copies for classroom use (not to exceed one copy per student per course) of:

  • a complete poem of less than 250 words,
  • an excerpt, not to exceed 250 words, from a longer poem,
  • a complete article, story or essay of less than 2,500 words,
  • an excerpt from a larger printed work not to exceed ten percent of the whole or 1,000 words,
  • one chart, graph, diagram, cartoon or picture per book or magazine issue if the individual item is not separately copyrighted,
  • two pages or ten percent of the words from children's picture books or comic books, or
  • 10% or less of a newsletter.

All copies must include an appropriate copyright warning notice.

Copying must be made by the teacher or at the request of the teacher - not at the direction of a higher authority.


May not copy more than one work or two excerpts from a single author during one class term.

No more than three works from a collective work or periodical volume during one class term may be copied.

May not make multiple copies of more than nine works for distribution to students in one class term.

Copies can not be used to create, replace, or substitute for an anthology.

"Consumable" works such as workbooks, standard tests, answer sheets, etc., may not be copied.


Permission to reuse content from Howard Community College Library.